This FOA encourages investigator-initiated NIH Research Project Grant (R01) applications designed to exploit the power of the zebrafish as a vertebrate model for biomedical and behavioral research. Or if the patient’s disease symptoms began during development in utero, knock-out or knock-in zebrafish embryos can be examined for gene expression changes (compared to embryos without the mutation) that could lead to abnormal development. The application of the zebrafish model in EDA-related research areas was verified by search in WoS for the zebrafish terms as keywords in topic/all databases, followed by classification per research area (Figure 1). The zebrafish research has gained further momentum in recent years due to two major technological breakthroughs: (1) completion of its genome sequencing (Howe et al., 2013) and (2) development of genome-editing technology (Gaj et al., 2013). Assuming that the exact mutation does not occur in humans, it is still likely that any variant in a gene that shows a strong phenotype in animal studies will contribute to the disease phenotype in humans. Introduction: The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae was investigated to predict adverse visual effects and to establish the potential application of this organism in early drug safety assessment. Dr Caroline Brennan, from Queen Mary University of London, tells the NC3Rs the top five reasons why zebrafish are her model of choice. Zebrafish Research and Biomedical Applications Zebrafish: From Basic Research to Drug Discovery. Easier to house and care for than rodents. In the past two decades, Zebrafish has become one of the preferred in vivo model organisms for studying diverse processes like regeneration , embryogenesis [9, 10], autophagy , behaviour [12, 13] and sleep. Black phosphorus (BP) has extensive applications in various fields. Here, we investigated the developmental toxicity of few-layered BP toward the zebrafish. To learn more about how zebrafish contribute to biomedical science and human health, visit the websites for the Trans-NIH Zebrafish Initiative website and the NICHD Zebrafish Core. While mice and rats have been common choices for modeling human diseases in the past, the … Add to this the wide range of environmental conditions that may impact on the disease occurrence, and the reluctance of individuals to be subjected to breeding schemes, and you can see why identification of disease causing alleles from human studies is problematic, despite vast amounts of sequence data. The name “zebrafish” comes from the horizontal blue stripes on each side of their bodies. For many, zebrafish are becoming an increasingly popular choice of model. Since cancers are caused by a combination of several genetic alterations, this knock-in zebrafish line was used to screen other potential cancer causing mutations. Many structural, functional and developmental similarities exist between zebrafish and human retinas, providing researchers with an excellent model to study human vision. Other areas of study include Alzheimer’s , the endocannabinoid system, and opioid systems, especially in addiction and substance abuse. For the majority of human diseases, genetic variations that associate with disease are of very minor effect, meaning that vast amounts of sequencing data are required before one can assign statistical significance to an association, which is hugely time consuming and expensive. However, there is a limit on what types of diseases can be studied in zebrafish. For instance, the structure of the muscle fibers can be examined for abnormalities under the microscope if the patient has a muscle disease. To determine if loss of function of that gene could cause the symptoms seen in the patient, the same gene is mutated or “knocked-out” in zebrafish, and then the fish are examined for similar symptoms. 2. Zebrafish, so named due to their stripes, prefer to live in large groups called shoals. Such a catalog of phenotypes, combined with the experimental advantages of the zebrafish embryo, has a high potential to improve the drug screening process: in addition to information gained through in vitro interaction studies with isolated target molecules or through biochemical analyses of cultured cells, assays carried out in zebrafish embryos will provide primary readout information … Therefore, experimental animal models of CVD have become essential tools for analyzing the pathogenesis, developing drug screening, and testing potential therapeutic strategies. Human melanoma has also been successfully modeled in zebrafish. McCutcheon V (1) (2), Park E (2), Liu E (2), Wang Y (2), Wen XY (1) (2) (3) (4), Baker AJ (1) (2) (5) (6). A recent study conducted by the University of Alberta suggests that the cannabis compounds THC and CBD may have negative effects on the development of the nervous system. For a patient with a neurological disease, the neurons of knock-out embryos can be fluorescently labeled to see if they form incorrectly. Although sometimes limited by the short efficacy period and confounding off-target effects (reviewed in Bedell et al., 2011), the use of morpholinos in zebrafish research, beginning at the turn of this century, tremendously accelerated zebrafish loss-of-function studies and solidified the relevance of investigating zebrafish orthologs of human disease genes. If one or more of the patient’s symptoms are observed in the zebrafish knock-out or knock-in model, the zebrafish can be used for further studies to help determine why the mutation in that gene causes the disease. Zebrafish is a small fresh water fish that has been used for decades as a classical developmental biology research model (Streisinger et al., 1981; Kimmel, 1989). Additionally, zebrafish are not useful models for human diseases that mainly take place in a tissue type or body part that zebrafish do not have (e.g., prostate, mammary glands, lungs). Thus, any type of disease that causes changes in these body parts in humans could theoretically be modeled in zebrafish. Does this surprise you? Recent research from Imran et al. Due to their small size and the relatively simple nature of their natural environment, it is easier to keep zebrafish in what appear to be more natural conditions than it is possible to simulate for mammals. When another commonly observed melanoma mutation of the gene SETDB1 was added to the BRAF knock-in zebrafish, a melanoma rapidly developed. Zebrafish produce hundreds of offspring at weekly intervals providing scientists with an ample … 2016).The embryonic zebrafish model has been used for this purpose in pharmaceutical development and in high-throughput screening programs at NTP … Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a fresh water fish that inhabits rivers in India, Pakistan and other places in Asia. Genetic research indicates high conservation between zebrafish and human genomes, making it an ideal model for generating biologically relevant in vivo information on a range of test material. Often a patient’s DNA is sequenced in order to find a mutation in a gene that could potentially cause his or her disease symptoms. This minimises housing stress and the impact such stress may have on the outcome of experiments. The invasive procedures avoided not only impact on welfare, but may also affect the experimental outcome, so the transparent nature of zebrafish larvae could also mean results are more accurate and easier to reproduce. A trio of researchers, two with the University of Calgary, the other McMaster University, has found that vaping has the potential of impacting prenatal brain development in zebrafish. Those examples of how humans and zebrafish can manifest the same disease despite how different we appear make it is easy to understand why zebrafish are becoming a well-accepted animal model. In addition to utilizing zebrafish disease models to characterize human diseases, researchers can also identify and test new drugs to treat the diseases being modeled. While mice are evolutionarily more similar to humans because they are mammals, zebrafish have several advantages over their furry competitors. Furthermore, considering the emerging use of zebrafish in the novel worldwide research endeavours, we aimed to compare and elaborate the zebrafish neurophysiology model in PD research with regard to disease development factors, cause-effect relationship of OS and comorbidities (focussing on sleep disturbances), and the pharmacological potential of antioxidant molecules. Scientists use a variety of laboratory techniques to investigate the genetic cause of human diseases. Mouse embryos are not clear and develop inside the mother, so the observation of live embryo development like that in zebrafish is not possible. Less intrusive techniques minimise animal suffering. How do the benefits of using a zebrafish model apply to genetic research? Zebrafish are tropical fresh-water fish in the minnow family. From Basic research to Drug Discovery of India, however they are mammals, zebrafish have a function. 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